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3 Habits To Break If You Often Have Dark Circles Under Your Eyes



Dark circles can be very annoying because they make you look really tired while you might not be tired at all. At some point, the circles might even have gotten so pronounced that not even makeup offers a solution anymore because it is as a result of some habits. These habits can make you look dead tired and ten years older than you actually are. But don’t despair because they’re easy to break!

Check Out 3 Habits To Break If You Often Have Dark Circles Under Your Eyes

Washing your face with water that’s too hot

Hot water and steam cause your face to swell and accentuate the dark skin under your eyes. So, stop using hot water and from now on wash your face with lukewarm water. Afterwards, rinse with cool water.

Using bad makeup remover  

Make sure you don’t cleanse your eyes with the same product you use for the rest of your face. The skin around your eyes is much more delicate and can’t deal very well with aggressive cleansing. Always use a mild cleanser for the skin around your eyes.

Eating too much salt

Salt causes your body to retain moisture. This will make the skin around your eyes look doughy and swollen. So, be a bit more mindful about the amounts of salt you put on your food!


Cultural Spotlight: History Of Idoma Tribe



Cultural Spotlight: History Of Idoma People |

Did you know that the history of the Idoma tribe is a fascinating subject that continues to be under scientific investigation? In this article, we will share some well-known facts about the origin and formation of this ethnic group.

The term “Idoma” refers to an ethnic group, a language, and the land where the people reside. The history of the Idoma tribe poses one of the most intricate questions about pre-colonial Nigeria.

Early studies of the Idoma origin link the tribe to an ancient ethnic group known as Akpoto (or Okposo). According to Samuel Ajayi Crowther, this ethnic group is now extinct, and it once occupied the majority of the land currently inhabited by the Idoma, Igala, and Igbira.

The theory surrounding the connection between Akpoto and the Idoma is still a subject of ongoing research, with scholars diligently examining the available evidence.

Akpoto people, according to J. N. Ukwedeh, held a substantial influence in the formation and development of the Idoma, Igala, and Ebira groups, occupying a significant portion of the Niger-Benue confluence area. The term “Akpoto” remains somewhat ambiguous, merely describing the people of the Ankpa region in the Eastern marches of Igalaland.

Another perspective suggests that the Idoma group traces its origins to Apa (Beipi), the capital of Kwararafa, a confederacy that was under the rule of Abakpawariga until the fifteenth century. Kwararafa existed within the Benue Valley area, and the Idoma group was undoubtedly one of the many tribes within the Confederacy.

According to Idoma tradition, the group left Apa due to increasing insecurity and persistent warfare in the kingdom. The period between 1476-1503 saw large-scale migration within Apa society, involving tribes such as the Idoma, Igala, Ebira, and others.

Idoma marriage rites: the death of “Oji”, the confession tradition |  IdomaLand

Documents and oral tradition indicate that in the early sixteenth century, the Idoma tribe began to expand across large areas of Lower Benue. Consequently, the tribe became widespread in the territory now inhabited by the Tiv, Igala, and modern Ebira.

Within Idomaland, internal migration occurred, leading to the formation of smaller groups such as Igede, Akweya, and Ufia, resulting in micro-nationalities within the Idoma territory. By the end of the eighteenth century, researchers confirmed that the tribe had firmly established itself in its current location. During this period, the tribe developed its own political, social, religious, and economic ideologies.

Considering all the evidence regarding the origin and history of the Idoma people, it can be concluded that the ancient Idoma were part of a significant migration from the Ape kingdom, ultimately settling in their present location.

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Interesting Facts About Idoma Tribe

1. Cultural heritage.

It is evident that the Idoma culture stands as one of the most captivating cultures in the country. The members of this tribe take great pride in their native heritage, diligently preserving numerous ancient traditions. This commitment has resulted in the development of unique artistic expressions, tales, music, beliefs, and various other cultural elements.

2. Steadfast locations.

The Idoma ethnolinguistic group primarily resides in the western areas of Benue State, but traces of Idoma culture can also be encountered in regions such as Nassarawa and Cross Rivers States.

Cultural Spotlight: History Of Idoma Tribe |

3. Central to the Idoma people’s beliefs is the ‘Alekwu spirit‘.

While many ethnic groups in the country have been significantly influenced by Christianity or Islam, the majority of Idoma individuals remain steadfast in their devotion to the ‘Alekwu spirit’. They annually celebrate a vital religious event known as the ‘Aje Alekwu‘ festival.

4. Distinct Idomoid languages.

The Idoma people communicate through their distinct language, classified as one of the Akweya subgroups of the Idomoid languages within the Volta-Niger family. Currently, the tribe comprises approximately 3.5 million people, and their language encompasses various dialects. These dialects include:

  • ‘Western Idoma’, spoken in Ogbadibo and Okpokwu local government areas.
  • ‘Northern Idoma’, is used in the Apa and Agatu regions.
  • ‘Central Idoma’, employed by the Ohimini and Otukpo people.
  • ‘Southern Idoma’, predominantly spoken by Ado communities.
  • 5. Fascinating history.

The Idoma tribe boasts a captivating history, contributing to the development of a vibrant and culturally rich heritage. Recognizable by their distinctive clothing adorned with red and black stripes, the Idoma people are renowned nationwide for their traditional dance, Ogirinya.

Researchers posit that the tribe’s ability to maintain and safeguard its cultural practices is largely attributed to its religious beliefs. As previously mentioned, the Idoma ethnic group has successfully preserved a system of traditional beliefs, ensuring the integrity of a substantial cultural legacy that persists to this day. Ongoing scientific exploration into the tribe’s history and origin promises the emergence of fresh and intriguing data in the future.

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5 Proverbs And Their Profound Meanings



5 Proverbs And Their Profound Meanings |

The Idoma people, an ethnic group in Nigeria, possess a rich culture that is characterized by their language, traditions, and wisdom, especially in the use of words. One of the ways they show this wisdom is in their use of proverbs.

We will delve into the symbolism and deeper meanings of five out of the many Idoma proverbs, shedding light on their significance and the wisdom they portray.

Understanding the Essence of Idoma Proverbs

Idoma proverbs serve as vessels of traditional knowledge, transmitting wisdom and insights from one generation to another.

These proverbs are used in various contexts, including storytelling, instruction, and the communication of moral lessons. They are an intrinsic part of daily life, serving as guidelines for behaviour and affirmations of cultural identity.

5 Idoma Proverbs and Their Meanings

1. “Ótúó ékú éta pómó válo.”

The snake in the house signals the absence of the owner.

This proverb highlights the notion that a concerning presence can be indicative of the absence of the rightful owner. It conveys the idea of vigilance and the need for attentiveness to changes or anomalies in one’s surroundings. It encourages individuals to be observant and responsive to potential indications of disturbance.

2. “Amá évule enwú áve uke.”

A child cannot cradle an adult in his arms.

Each individual has limitations in what they can achieve or bear responsibility for. Therefore, recognizing one’s capabilities and limitations fosters a sense of realistic assessment and self-awareness. And to that, this proverb underscores the concept of appropriate roles and responsibilities.

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3. “Amá ene énani jídúlá embe jide.”

A child is taught how to swim in calm waters.

This proverb emphasizes that conducive environments for imparting knowledge or skills are highly important. This means that optimal conditions enable effective teaching and learning.

And providing a supportive and nurturing environment for individuals to acquire new competencies or experiences is also very significant.

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4. “Épu mphe apu otalu.”

The people of the community come together to build a house.

Here, collaboration and communal effort are powerful. It is important for collective action and joint contributions towards a common goal. Also, unity, solidarity, and shared responsibility in achieving shared objectives should be valued and esteemed high.

5. “Otámá kpá límo mévì.”

The rat often knows its hole.

This proverb conveys the idea that individuals have an innate understanding of their environment or circumstances. It emphasizes the significance of self-awareness and familiarity with one’s surroundings.

It encourages individuals to trust their instincts and rely on their knowledge and experiences to navigate their lives.

Symbolism of Idoma Proverbs

Each Idoma proverb symbolizes the cultural values, experiences, and social dynamics that define the Idoma people’s worldview.

These proverbs embody the collective wisdom of the community, offering insights into ethical conduct, interpersonal relationships, and the realities of everyday life.

They serve as vehicles for preserving traditional knowledge and affirming the cultural identity of the Idoma people.

Idoma proverbs represent invaluable repositories of traditional wisdom and cultural continuity. Their symbolism and nuanced meanings contribute to the rich cultural tapestry of the Idoma people, fostering a sense of community and shared understanding.

The durability and relevance of these proverbs can be attributed to their capacity to impart enduring lessons, foster unity, and preserve the heritage of the Idoma people for generations to come.

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History Of Television Stations In Nigeria



History Of Television Stations In Nigeria |

Many people commonly identify the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) as the first television station in Nigeria due to its widespread popularity, and they’re not entirely incorrect. Given that Nigeria gained independence in 1960, it’s understandable to associate anything introduced after independence as a pioneering initiative.

However, this article aims to dive into the distinction between the first television station in Nigeria both before and after independence, with deeper insights into the country’s media evolution.

Recognizing the pivotal role that news media plays in shaping opinions and disseminating information on topics like government, politics, fashion, religion, and lifestyle, it becomes critical to explore the historical landscape of broadcasting corporations and new media in Nigeria.

First Television Station Pre-independence 

Before Nigeria had its television station, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was present in the late 1950s. In 1959, Chief Obafemi Awolowo took a groundbreaking step by establishing Nigeria’s first indigenous TV station in Ibadan—Western Nigerian Television (WNTV), marking one of Africa’s earliest television stations.

WNTV held historical significance as the first TV station in Africa, south of the Sahara, and played a crucial role in the mass communication development of Nigeria.

The ability of regions to establish independent TV stations emerged when broadcasting transitioned from the exclusive to the concurrent list. This shift granted regions the autonomy to create broadcasting stations free from government control. Despite conducting a test transmission in 1959, WNTV officially commenced regular broadcasts on October 31, 1959.

Operating in black and white, the station featured a diverse range of programming, including local and foreign content such as news, sports, dramas, documentaries, and musical shows. Reflecting the linguistic diversity of the Western Region of Nigeria, broadcasts were conducted in Yoruba and English.

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WNTV played a pivotal role in promoting Nigerian culture and national unity by showcasing and nurturing local talent in drama, music, and various artistic realms. This effort contributed to fostering a shared cultural identity among Nigerians from different ethnicities and regions.

The objectives of WNTV at its inception included educating and entertaining Western Nigeria, promoting cultural heritage and national unity, and supporting economic and social development, thereby creating employment opportunities for the people of Western Nigeria.

First Television Station Post-independence 

Following Nigeria’s independence on October 1, 1960, Kaduna established its television channel, Radio Kaduna Television (RKTV), in 1962, specifically catering to Northern Nigeria.

Simultaneously, a federal channel, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), was founded in Lagos in the same year to serve the southwestern part of Nigeria.

In 1972, Benin introduced MidWest TV in Port Harcourt, and by 1974, the Benue-Plateau Television Corporation was established in Jos, marking Nigeria’s first colour television station.

During this period of television expansion, the Nigerian government, led by Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the first Prime Minister of Nigeria, established the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) in 1977.

This move led to the merger and rebranding of existing broadcast corporations, such as RKTV, NBC, MidWest TV, and Benue-Plateau Television, into NTV, now owned by NTA. NTA stands as the largest television network in Nigeria today.

Initially, NTA operated with a single channel, featuring limited programming that spanned a few hours daily, including news, sports, and educational programs. In its early stages, NTA predominantly produced in-house content, but as the network expanded, it began acquiring programs from other countries.

Historically holding a monopoly over television in Nigeria, NTA controlled 101 stations in state capitals and towns. However, in 1990, this monopoly was broken, leading to a significant increase in the number of functional broadcast stations.

Presently, Nigeria boasts more than 740 operational broadcast stations.

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